Gum disease and heart disease symptoms

Did you know that inflamed, infected gums from periodontal (gum) disease can lead to an increased risk of heart disease? The bacteria from gum infections can actually spread to the bloodstream and cause damage to blood vessels, which can exacerbate or contribute to cardiovascular issues.

Heart disease refers to a range of conditions that affect the heart’s functionality, including coronary artery disease, heart attacks, and strokes. While gum disease primarily affects oral health, studies have indicated that there may be a connection between the two.

Understanding how to recognize the signs of each condition can help you take preventative steps for better overall health.

Gum disease and heart disease symptoms

Understanding Gum Disease and Heart Disease

Gum disease, also known as periodontal disease, starts as inflammation of the gums due to bacterial accumulation in the form of plaque. In its early stages, this inflammation, known as gingivitis, is often characterized by bleeding gums and tenderness. If left untreated, it can progress to periodontitis, where the infection spreads deeper, affecting the bones that support the teeth.

As the infection worsens, the gums can become inflamed and even start to recede, creating pockets where bacteria can thrive.

It’s from these inflamed gums that bacteria can enter the bloodstream, a process known as bacteremia. Once in the bloodstream, these bacteria may find their way to other parts of the body, including the blood vessels around the heart.

Fueling the Fires of Inflammation

Research has suggested that the bacteria responsible for gum disease can enter the bloodstream through inflamed gums. Once in the bloodstream, these bacteria might contribute to the development of inflammation in the blood vessels, which can increase the risk of heart disease.

Inflammation is the body’s response to harmful stimuli, and while it’s a natural defense mechanism, chronic inflammation can have serious consequences. The bacteria can provoke the immune system, causing the release of inflammatory molecules that contribute to the narrowing and hardening of blood vessels – a process known as atherosclerosis.

Inflamed blood vessels become a prime site for plaque buildup – a combination of cholesterol, fats, and other substances – that gradually narrows the arteries. This restricts the smooth flow of blood, potentially leading to heart-related problems.

Blood Clots and Blockages

The presence of inflamed blood vessels sets the stage for an even more dangerous scenario: blood clots. These clots can form in response to the damage caused by inflammation and plaque buildup. If a blood clot forms and blocks an already-narrowed artery, it can lead to a heart attack or stroke.

In essence, the inflamed, infected gums unwittingly introduce bacteria into the bloodstream, which then adhere to blood vessel walls. The immune system’s response to this intrusion can escalate inflammation and cause damage to the blood vessels, creating a conducive environment for atherosclerosis and blood clots to take root.

Accelerating Atherosclerosis

While gum disease alone may not directly “cause” atherosclerosis, it plays a significant role in accelerating its progression.

It’s important to recognize that gum disease acts in conjunction with other well-known risk factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, and high cholesterol. Together, these factors create a perfect storm, further worsening the condition of blood vessels and increasing the likelihood of heart disease.

The symptoms of heart disease include:

  • Chest pain, tightness, or discomfort
  • Pain spreading to shoulders, arms, neck or jaw
  • Dizziness, fatigue, nausea
  • Shortness of breath
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Swelling in feet, legs, stomach

Studies Connecting Gum Disease Bacteria and Heart Disease Risk

In a recent study published in eLife, researchers uncovered a potential link between an oral bacterium known to cause gum disease and an increased risk of heart disease. The study focused on the bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum, a culprit responsible for gum disease and bad breath.

According to the research, individuals who have experienced either current or previous infection with F. nucleatum might face a higher risk of artery blockages that can lead to heart attacks.

Plaque buildup in the arteries supplying blood to the heart leads to coronary heart disease, which can escalate into blockages causing heart attacks. Previous studies have hinted at a connection between certain infections and increased plaque buildup.

Studies suggest that the F. nucleatum bacterium might contribute to cardiovascular risk either through systemic inflammation caused by bacterial presence in the mouth or through direct colonization of arterial walls or plaque lining those walls.

This discovery potentially introduces a new risk factor that physicians could consider when assessing an individual’s heart disease risk. Additionally, it opens the door to the possibility of treatments that target F. nucleatum infection to reduce the risk of heart disease.

Embracing Comprehensive Health

The connection between gum disease and heart disease underscores the importance of comprehensive health care. Our oral health doesn’t exist in isolation – it has far-reaching implications for our overall well-being.

Treating gum disease promptly and maintaining vigilance of cardiovascular health are both critical. Have regular professional cleanings to manage gum inflammation and follow your dentist and doctor’s advice for reducing your risk of heart disease.

Final Thoughts

While further research is needed to establish a concrete cause-and-effect relationship between gum disease and heart disease, the potential connection is a reminder of how different aspects of our health are intertwined.

Practicing good oral hygiene, including regular dental check-ups and proper brushing and flossing, is crucial for preventing gum disease. Furthermore, maintaining a heart-healthy lifestyle through exercise, a balanced diet, and regular medical check-ups can also contribute to overall well-being.

As you prioritize your health, keep in mind that your smile and your heart share more than just your body – they share a vital connection that underscores the importance of comprehensive care.

References

https://elifesciences.org/for-the-press/d09b443c/oral-bacteria-may-increase-heart-disease-risk#:~:text=Infection%20with%20a%20bacterium%20that,study%20published%20today%20in%20eLife.

Authors

  • Editorial team

    A team comprising oral health care professionals, researchers, and professional Writers, striving to impart you with the knowledge to improve your oral health, and that of your loved ones. 

  • Lilly

    Lilly, aka, Liza Lee, is a passionate community oral health officer and our lead writer. She's not only well-versed in performing a multitude of dental procedures, including preventive, restorative, and cosmetic, but also an avid writer. Driven by the significant oral health burden all around her, Lilly strives to build capacity and promote oral health. She envisions making a lasting impact by advancing research, prevention, and promotion efforts to alleviate oral health disparities. Please share your views and opinions on my posts.

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